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Which of the Following is a Polynomial?

A polynomial is a mathematical expression consisting of variables, coefficients, and exponents, combined using addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents. Polynomials are widely used in various fields of mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer science. In this article, we will explore the concept of polynomials, discuss their properties, and provide examples to help you understand which expressions can be classified as polynomials.

What is a Polynomial?

A polynomial is a mathematical expression that represents a function of one or more variables. It is composed of terms, where each term consists of a coefficient multiplied by one or more variables raised to non-negative integer exponents. The variables can be any letter or combination of letters, such as x, y, z, or even multiple variables like xy, x^2y^3, etc.

Polynomials can be classified based on the number of variables they contain:

  • Univariate Polynomial: A polynomial with only one variable. For example, 3x^2 – 5x + 2 is a univariate polynomial.
  • Multivariate Polynomial: A polynomial with more than one variable. For example, 2xy^2 – 3x^2z + yz is a multivariate polynomial.

Identifying Polynomials

To determine whether an expression is a polynomial, we need to check if it satisfies certain criteria:

  1. Terms: A polynomial must consist of one or more terms. A term is a product of a coefficient and variables raised to non-negative integer exponents. For example, in the expression 3x^2 – 5x + 2, each of the three parts (3x^2, -5x, and 2) is a term.
  2. Coefficients: The coefficients in a polynomial can be any real number, including zero. For example, in the expression 3x^2 – 5x + 2, the coefficients are 3, -5, and 2.
  3. Exponents: The exponents in a polynomial must be non-negative integers. For example, in the expression 3x^2 – 5x + 2, the exponents are 2, 1, and 0.
  4. Operations: Polynomials can be combined using addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Division by variables or expressions containing variables is not allowed. For example, (x^2 + 2x – 1) / x is not a polynomial.

Examples of Polynomials

Let’s look at some examples to further illustrate which expressions are considered polynomials:

Example 1:

2x^3 + 5x^2 – 3x + 1

This expression is a polynomial because:

  • It consists of four terms: 2x^3, 5x^2, -3x, and 1.
  • The coefficients are 2, 5, -3, and 1.
  • The exponents are 3, 2, 1, and 0.
  • It only involves addition and subtraction operations.

Example 2:

4xy^2 – 3x^2 + 2y – 1

This expression is also a polynomial because:

  • It consists of four terms: 4xy^2, -3x^2, 2y, and -1.
  • The coefficients are 4, -3, 2, and -1.
  • The exponents are 2, 2, 1, and 0.
  • It only involves addition and subtraction operations.

Example 3:

7x^2y^3z – 2xy + 3z^2

This expression is a multivariate polynomial because:

  • It consists of three terms: 7x^2y^3z, -2xy, and 3z^2.
  • The coefficients are 7, -2, and 3.
  • The exponents are 2, 3, 1, 1, and 2.
  • It only involves addition and subtraction operations.

What is Not a Polynomial?

Now that we have a clear understanding of what constitutes a polynomial, let’s explore some expressions that do not meet the criteria:

Example 1:

2x^2 + 3/x – 1

This expression is not a polynomial because:

  • It contains a term with a variable in the denominator (3/x).
  • Division by variables or expressions containing variables is not allowed in polynomials.

Example 2:

√x + 2

This expression is not a polynomial because:

  • It contains a term with a square root (√x).
  • Polynomials only involve non-negative integer exponents.

Example 3:

2x^2 + 3x^(-1) + 1

This expression is not a polynomial because:

  • It contains a term with a negative exponent (3x^(-1)).
  • Polynomials only involve non-negative integer exponents.

Summary

In summary, a polynomial is a mathematical expression consisting of variables, coefficients, and exponents, combined using addition, subtraction, and multiplication. To determine if an expression is a polynomial, we need to check if it satisfies certain criteria, such as having terms with non-negative integer exponents and only involving addition, subtraction, and multiplication operations. Polynomials are widely used in various fields and play a crucial role in mathematical modeling and problem-solving.

Q&A

Q1: Can a polynomial have a fractional coefficient?

A1: Yes, a polynomial can have a fractional coefficient. The coefficients in a polynomial can be any real number, including fractions or decimals.

Q2: Can a polynomial have a negative exponent?

A2: No

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